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Hoofed mammals: This category includes two groups of large herbivores, the odd toed ungulates (perrisodactyls), such as the Tapir, and the even-toed ungulates (artiodactyls), such as peccaries and deer. Hoofed mammals walk on their toes which are tipped with one, two, or three hooves.
Tapir
Tapirus terrestris Tapir image
Makushi name: Waira
Creole name: Bush Cow, Bush Donkey
Size: body=2 m; weight=250 kg
Description: This is the largest mammal in Iwokrama. Grey; with an elongated, trunk-like, downwardly curved snout, and a short tail. Dark crest of hair beginning on the forehead and extending past the ears. Eyeshine reddish, moderately bright.
Activity: Nocturnal and diurnal; terrestrial but also spends time in streams and swims well.
Habits: Solitary. Although usually shy and quiet, when disturbed it often escapes by crashing through the underbrush. It may also snort and stomp, and individuals communicate with one another using a loud, long whistle. During the day, it usually rests in swampy areas in thick vegetation.
Habitat: Forest, especially near streams, creek beds, and swamps with dense brush, although it ranges widely and can be seen far from water.
Signs: The three-toed tracks are distinctive and often persistent in mud (the fourth toe of the front foot also shows), where this large animal leaves deep impressions.
Status: Locally common. Listed on CITES Appendix II. IUCN rank of Lower Risk.
Distribution in Iwokrama
White-lipped Peccary
Tayassu pecari White-lipped Peccary image
Makushi name: PÓinkÓ, Karauta
Creole name: Bush Hog, Wild Hog, White-jawed Peccary
Size: body=1.2 m; weight=35 kg
Description: Medium sized, piglike, with a stocky body and slim legs. All-black or dark brown except for a white or tan patch on lower jaw and throat. Larger and darker than Collared Peccary. Eyeshine dull, reddish.
Activity: Nocturnal and diurnal, usually inactive in the middle of the day; terrestrial.
Habits: Very social, living in large herds of 40 to 200 or more. Smaller groups represent fragmented populations. These peccaries travel long distances walking single file on trails or paths through the forest. Each herd uses a large home range, estimated as up to 200 square kilometres. It feeds by bulldozing through the soil and eating fruit, roots, vegetation and invertebrates. It uses its very strong interlocking jaws to open very hard palm nuts, an important element in the diet. This species can be dangerous; when encountered a group may make an ominous clicking sound by clashing the canine teeth together. Other sounds include a low bark in alarm, snorts, wheezes and rumbles.
Habitat: Limited to large tracts of mature, evergreen forest with little human disturbance.
Signs: Tracks show two triangular hooves, slightly rounded at tip, about 55 mm wide; large swaths of forest with shallow holes and disturbed leaf litter, permeated with musty, cheesy odour indicate recent activity of a group; greasy stains on rocks or logs.
Status: Locally common. Listed on CITES Appendix II.
Distribution in Iwokrama
Collared Peccary
Pecari tajacu Collared Peccary image
Makushi name: Praka, Paraka
Size: body=90 cm; weight=20 kg
Description: Small, piglike, with a stocky body and slim legs. Grizzled grey-brown with a pale collar from shoulders to chest. Head large, triangular. Eyeshine reddish, moderately bright.
Activity: Nocturnal or diurnal; terrestrial.
Habits: Social, usually seen in groups of 5 to 15. If hunted it may be largely nocturnal but is usually diurnal in evergreen forest. Groups rest in caves, in deep burrows, or under rocks or logs. It eats mostly palm nuts and other fruits, but also takes some leafy vegetables, roots, and invertebrates. Groups sometimes follow a troop of monkeys, eating fruit dropped from trees. If alarmed it gives a series of sharp whoofs; other calls includes grunts, purrs and barks.
Habitat: All forest types, savannah, desert and agricultural areas.
Signs: Tracks show two triangular hooves, usually slightly rounded at tip (tracks of deer are similar but have pointed tips), about 35 mm wide. Strong musty (gym-room) odour is characteristic, permeates regularly used mud wallows and dusting areas; dark oily deposits from scent glands are left on rocks and trees.
Status: Common and widespread where not hunted. Listed on CITES Appendix II.
Distribution in Iwokrama

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